Key Research

The term ‘Steering Cognition’ was coined by the researcher Simon P. Walker who discovered consistent, replicable patterns of attention and corresponding response through repeated cognitive tests between 2000 and 2015, in studies with over 15,000 individuals.

Working with his colleague Jo Walker, he was able to show that these patterns correlated with other cognitive attributes such as mental wellbeing, social competency and academic performance. Together, Walker and Walker conjecture that Steering Cognition is a central mechanism by which people self-regulate their cognitive, emotional and social states.

COGNITIVE, SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL RISKS

  • Poorly regulated Steering Cognition has been shown to correlate strongly with increased mental health and welfare risks during adolescence. A study in 2015 showed that pupils with certain fixed biases in their Steering Cognition were four times more likely to exhibit self-harm, be bullied or not cope with school pressures
  • Secondary school environments which focus on accelerating pupil progress against narrow academic targets have been shown to impede the development of pupils’ ability to regulate their Steering Cognition, correlating with some potentially increased mental health and welfare risks.

COGNITIVE, SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL ADVANTAGES

  • The ability to regulate Steering Cognition has been shown to account for up to 15% of academic outcomes at secondary school. Unlike IQ, Steering Cognition can be improved through coaching and specific teaching approaches, providing a potentially untapped educational dividend for schools
  • A large 2014 study showed that Boarding school education results in better pupil ability to regulate Steering Cognition across social situations than Day school education. This so-called ‘Tribe Effect’ is conjectured to lead to continued social advantages beyond school, such as access to future in-group benefits in work and wider society.
  • Employers have been shown to seek employees for higher-level roles such as management and leadership who have better, more flexible Steering Cognition
  • Steering Cognition can be improved through training, coaching and more carefully structured and supportive environments. Steering Cognition is susceptible to both internal and external constraint and direction, equivalent to both teaching a person to drive AND improving the quality of the road signs.

What is Steering Cognition?

Steering Cognition is a model of executive cognitive functions which contribute to how we regulate our attention and coordinate our corresponding responses.

Steering Cognition is a way of explaining how the brain biases attention toward specific stimuli whilst ignoring others, before coordinating responsive actions which cohere with our past patterns of self-representation. Steering Cognition enables us to use our limited cognitive resources to make sense of the world that we expect to see. The analogy of the car is sometimes used to explain Steering Cognition. As the ‘controls of our mind’, Steering Cognition regulates its direction, brakes and gears. Studies have shown that it is distinct from the ‘engine’ of our mind, sometimes referred to as ‘algorithmic processing’, which is responsible for how we process complex calculations.

Regulating our Steering Cognition involves conscious effort; much like driving off-road, we particularly need to regulate our Steering Cognition when we are facing unpredictable and varied situations and stimuli. Failing to do so can result in cognitive, affective and social biases. The state of our Steering Cognition at any time is influenced by the priming effect of the surrounding environment. Studies have shown that environment biasing of our Steering Cognition can contribute to non-conscious in-group behaviours, e.g. an increased likelihood of group-think or emotional contagion.

Studies have shown that during adolescence individuals develop more fixed patterns of steering. By adulthood, these patterns become recognisable as mental traits, behaviours and social attributes. There is some evidence that people with more flexible Steering Cognition are advantaged in jobs which require greater social or cognitive dexterity. Steering Cognition has been shown to depend on our ability to mental simulate, or imagine ourselves performing tasks and functions. As such, Steering Cognition requires the capacity to self-represent, associating memories of our past and possible future selves. Steering Cognition has been shown to implicate our emotional (affective), social and abstract cognitions.

The term ‘Steering Cognition’ was coined by the researcher Simon P. Walker who discovered consistent, replicable patterns of attention and corresponding response through repeated cognitive tests between 2000 and 2015, in studies with over 15,000 individuals. Working with his colleague Jo Walker, he was able to show that these patterns correlated with other cognitive attributes such as mental wellbeing, social competency and academic performance. Together, Walker and Walker conjecture that Steering Cognition is a central mechanism by which people self-regulate their cognitive, emotional and social states.

Why is Steering Cognition important in education?

Steering Cognition has the potential to explain previously unquantified effects of education which have significant consequences for pupil learning and welfare.

The importance of Steering Cognition lies in its explanation of human behaviours which lead to either risks or advantages for individuals and collective groups. A car driver with poor control will increase risks for himself and others. Similarly, individuals with poor Steering Cognition may increase risks for themselves and others whilst those with better steering travel further and more safely. Importantly, the ability to regulate one’s Steering Cognition is unrelated to IQ or rational group behaviour, so measuring Steering Cognition offers an explanation of behaviours and events not currently detected by traditional metrics and models.

RISKS

  • Poorly regulated Steering Cognition has been shown to correlate strongly with increased mental health and welfare risks during adolescence. A study in 2015 showed that pupils with certain fixed biases in their Steering Cognition were four times more likely to exhibit self-harm, be bullied or not cope with school pressures.
  • Secondary school environments which focus on accelerating pupil progress against narrow academic targets have been shown to impede the development of pupils’ ability to regulate their Steering Cognition, leading to some potentially increased mental health and welfare risks READ ARTICLE.
  • Closed group environments have been shown to result in collective biases in Steering Cognition, which increase in-group defensiveness, cognitive blindness and potential prejudice. This suggests that, at a cognitive level, radicalisation may involve the biasing of individuals’ Steering Cognition, through closed environmental priming effects, which in turn lead to hostile attitudes and actions.

ADVANTAGES

  • The ability to regulate your Steering Cognition has been shown to account for up to 15% of academic outcomes at secondary school. Unlike IQ, Steering Cognition can be improved through coaching and specific teaching approaches, providing a potentially untapped educational dividend for schools.
  • A large 2014 study showed that Boarding school education results in better pupil ability to regulate Steering Cognition across social situations than Day school education. This so-called ‘The Tribe Effect’ is conjectured to lead to continued social advantages beyond school, such as access to future in-group benefits in work and wider society. The Tribe Effect may in part explain why social mobility has continued to decline despite improvements in academic standards across all sectors of society. READ ARTICLE
  • Employers have been shown to seek employees for higher-level roles such as management and leadership who have better, more flexible Steering Cognition.

Primary Publications

PRIMARY QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH STUDY PAPERS

pdf-icon-150x150

THINKING, STRAIGHT OR TRUE?, Walker Simon P., 2015

A detailed publication of empirical methods and findings from a wide 15 year research programme describing our central claims: the cognitive, social and mental health implications of the self-regulation of Steering Cognition.

pdf-icon-150x150

The Motorway Model of education: Teaching pupils to drive their minds fast but not teaching them to steer

Publication of our 2015 study involving nearly 4,000 pupils across 20 UK secondary schools which answered the question: Model. Do pupils at schools which show Motorway Model characteristics exhibit narrower cognitive abilities than pupils at schools which show less of those Motorway characteristics? If so, what might the consequences be for employability beyond school?

pdf-icon-150x150

Mental health risks of the Motorway Model of education

Publication of our 2015 study involving more than 6,000 pupils across 16 UK secondary schools which answered the question: Is there a link between schools exhibiting the characteristics of the Motorway Model and increased pupil mental health risks?

pdf-icon-150x150

Engaging students in optimising their metacognition, Walker Simon P., 2015

Working paper reporting findings from a 6 month study seeking to improve academic outcomes amongst first year UK undergraduates by improving the self-regulation of their Steering Cognition.

pdf-icon-150x150

Navigating the world by heuristic bias, Walker Simon P., 2014

Early studies evidencing that the self-regulation of Steering Cognition was distinct from IQ-like algorithmic cognition and contributed to academic outcomes at secondary school.

pdf-icon-150x150

Educating the self-regulation of bias, Walker Simon P., 2014

Early studies evidencing that the self-regulation of Steering Cognition is ecologically influenced by secondary school environment and is teachable.
THEORETICAL PAPERS AND LITERATURE REVIEWS UNDERPINNING THE DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF AS TRACKING, A STEERING COGNITION MEASUREMENT AND IMPROVEMENT TOOL FOR SCHOOLS

pdf-icon-150x150

How the AS Tracking assessment measures Steering Cognition, Walker J., Walker S., 2015

Paper describing the theoretical, empirical and statistical evidence for AS Tracking as a measure of pupil Steering Cognition. Describes studies evidencing the validity, reliability and norms of AS Tracking as an instrument.

pdf-icon-150x150

AS Tracking: Self Regulation: the ability to make wise choices, Walker J., 2015

Theoretical paper describing the relationship between Walker and Walker’s model of Steering Cognition and theories of self-regulation

pdf-icon-150x150

AS Tracking: A psychological and developmental understanding of trust of self, Walker J., 2015

Theoretical paper describing the relationship between Walker and Walker’s model of Steering Cognition and developmental theories of self

pdf-icon-150x150

AS Tracking: A psychological and developmental understanding of seeking change, Walker J., 2015

Theoretical paper describing the relationship between Walker and Walker’s model of Steering Cognition and developmental theories of risk-taking and self-expansion

pdf-icon-150x150

AS Tracking: A psychological and developmental understanding of self-disclosure, Walker J., 2015

Theoretical paper describing the relationship between Walker and Walker’s model of Steering Cognition and developmental theories of self-presentation and disclosure

pdf-icon-150x150

AS Tracking: A psychological and developmental understanding of self-disclosure, Walker J., 2015

Theoretical paper describing the relationship between Walker and Walker’s model of Steering Cognition and developmental theories of self-presentation and disclosure

pdf-icon-150x150

AS Tracking: A psychological and developmental understanding of trust of others, Walker J., 2015

Theoretical paper describing the relationship between Walker and Walker’s model of Steering Cognition and developmental theories of self-other individuation

pdf-icon-150x150

AS Tracking: A psychological and developmental understanding of over self-regulation, Walker J., 2015

Theoretical paper describing the relationship between Walker and Walker’s model of Steering Cognition and theories of over self-regulation

jowalker-e1443734042102-300x290

LEAD RESEARCHERS: JO WALKER

BA, Doctoral Research Student

simonwalker-150x150

LEAD RESEARCHERS: DR SIMON WALKER

DProf, MTh, MA Oxon, MBPsS

What literature underpins Steering Cognition?

Steering Cognition is a term coined by Simon P. Walker to describe a novel construct which is associated with the following major existing research literature fields in cognitive and social psychology:

EXECUTIVE FUNCTION

  • Steering Cognition is a model of social and cognitive executive function. It is explains a functional governor mechanism by which the mind coordinates attention and executes responsive action.

METACOGNITION

  • Steering Cognition is a model of metacognition. It describes the capacity of the mind to exert conscious control over its reasoning and processing strategies in relation to external data and internal state

SELF-REGULATION

  • Steering Cognition is an explanatory mechanism of some phenomena of affective, cognitive and social self-regulation. It describes effortful control processes which exhibit depletion after strain.

MENTAL SIMULATION CIRCUITRY

  • Steering Cognition has been repeatedly shown to implicate the mind’s mental simulation circuitry. As such, it is associated with functional neural circuits involved in projective and retrospective memory, self-representation, associative processing and imagination.

CONSCIOUS / NON-CONSCIOUS

  • Steering Cognition provides an account of the transitioning process from non-conscious, or automatic, to conscious processing that occurs in the mind (see Dual Process Theory).

DUAL PROCESS THEORY:

  • According to the Steering Cognition model, dual process System 1 functions as a serial cognitive steering processor for System 2, rather than the traditionally understood parallel system. In order to process epistemically varied environmental data, a Steering Cognition orientation system is required to align varied, incoming environmental data with existing neural algorithmic processes. The brain’s associative simulation capacity, centered around the imagination, plays an integrator role to perform this function (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dual_process_theory#Dual_Process_and_Steering_Cognition).

COGNITIVE BIASES

  • In the cognitive steering model, a conscious state emerges from effortful associative simulation, required to align novel data accurately with remote memory, via later algorithmic processes. By contrast, fast unconscious automaticity is constituted by unregulated simulatory biases, which induce errors in subsequent algorithmic processes. The phrase ‘rubbish in, rubbish out’ is used to explain errorful Steering Cognition processing: errors will always occur if the accuracy of initial retrieval and location of data is poorly self-regulated.

SOCIAL PRIMING

  • Steering Cognition provides an explanation of how the mind is nonconsciously influenced by the environmental cues, or primes, around it. Steering Cognition studies have produced data of attentional bias and blindness best explained by environmental priming.

ALGORITHMIC – HEURISTIC COGNITION

  • Steering Cognition has been shown to rely upon associative rather than algorithmic cognitive processing and is best understood as heuristic in purpose- guiding the direction of our mind. Steering Cognition conceptualises the relationship between these algorithmic and associative functions as serial rather than parallel pathways. Our Steering Cognition guides our attention prior to algorithmic data processing.

HUMAN ECOLOGY THEORY

  • A specific data model, Human Ecology Theory, underpins the Steering Cognition findings to date. Walker conducted variatiants of the same cognitive test with more than 11,000 candidates between the ages of 8 and 60 between 2002 and 2015. Using Principle Component Analysis, Walker was able to identify 7 latent largely independent ‘heuristic substitution’ factors which he labelled S, L, X, P, M, O, T . Subsequent exploratory factor analysis confirmed a largely orthogonal factor analysis structure. In 2014 Walker referred to this 7 factor model as the Human Ecology model of CAS state – cognitive affective social state . Also that year, Walker J. described four of the factors in greater detail (S, L, X and P) elucidating the relationships of the factors to affective-social self-regulation literature.

Selected cited Steering Cognition research literature

Alter, Adam L.; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.; Epley, Nicholas; Eyre, Rebecca N. (2007): Overcoming intuition: Metacognitive difficulty activates analytic reasoning. In Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 136 (4), pp. 569–576. DOI: 10.1037/0096-3445.136.4.569.
Amsel, Eric; Klaczynski, Paul A.; Johnston, Adam; Bench, Shane; Close, Jason; Sadler, Eric; Walker, Rick (2008): A dual-process account of the development of scientific reasoning: The nature and development of metacognitive intercession skills. In Cognitive Development 23 (4), pp. 452–471. DOI: 10.1016/j.cogdev.2008.09.002.
Ball, Linden J.; Phillips, Peter; Wade, Caroline N.; Quayle, Jeremy D. (2006): Effects of Belief and Logic on Syllogistic Reasoning. In Experimental Psychology 53 (1), pp. 77–86. DOI: 10.1027/16183169.53.1.77.
Banich, Marie T. (2009): Executive Function: The Search for an Integrated Account. In Current Directions in Psychological Science 18 (2), pp. 89–94. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01615.x.
Bargh, J. A.; Morsella, E. (2008): The Unconscious Mind. In Perspectives on Psychological Science 3 (1), pp. 73–79. DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-6916.2008.00064.x.
Bargh, John A. (2006): What have we been priming all these years? On the development, mechanisms, and ecology of nonconscious social behavior. In Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 36 (2), pp. 147– 168. DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.336.
Bargh, John A.; Chen, Mark; Burrows, Lara (1996): Automaticity of social behavior: Direct effects of trait construct and stereotype activation on action. In Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 71 (2), pp. 230–244. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.71.2.230.
Bargh, John A.; Gollwitzer, Peter M.; Lee-Chai, Annette; Barndollar, Kimberly; Trötschel, Roman (2001): The automated will: Nonconscious activation and pursuit of behavioral goals. In Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81 (6), pp. 1014–1027. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.81.6.1014.
Bargh, John A.; Schwader, Kay L.; Hailey, Sarah E.; Dyer, Rebecca L.; Boothby, Erica J. (2012): Automaticity in social-cognitive processes. In Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (12), pp. 593–605. DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2012.10.002.
Bargh J., Chen M., Burrows L. (1996): Automaticity of Social Behavior: Direct Effects of Trait Construct and Stereotype Activation on Action. In Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 71 (2), pp. 230–244.
Bauer, Isabelle, M.; Baumeister, Roy, F. (2011): Self Regulatory Strength. In : Handbook of Self Regulation. Research, Theory and Applications, pp. 64–78.
Baumeister, Roy F.; Bratslavsky, Ellen; Muraven, Mark; Tice, Dianne M. (1998): Ego depletion: Is the active self a limited resource?, Vol 74(5), May 1998, 1252-1265. In Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74 (5), pp. 1252–1265.
Baumeister, Roy F.; Vohs, Kathleen D. (Eds.) (2004): Handbook of self-regulation. Research, theory, and applications. New York: Guilford Press.
Blair, Clancy (2002): School readiness. Integrating cognition and emotion in a neurobiological conceptualization of children’s functioning at school entry. In The American psychologist 57 (2), pp. 111–127.
Bull, R.; Scerif, G. (2001): Executive functioning as a predictor of children’s mathematics ability: inhibition, switching, and working memory. In Dev Neuropsychol 19 (3), pp. 273–293. DOI: 10.1207/S15326942DN1903_3.
Burgess, Paul W.; Alderman, Nick; Forbes, Catrin; Costello, Angela; Coates, Laure M-A; Dawson, Deirdre R. et al. (2006): The case for the development and use of \”ecologically valid\” measures of executive function in experimental and clinical neuropsychology. In J Int Neuropsychol Soc 12 (2), pp. 194–209. DOI: 10.1017/S1355617706060310.
De Neys W. (2006): Automatic–heuristic and executive–analytic processing during reasoning: Chronometric and dual-task considerations. In The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 59 (6), pp. 1070–1100. DOI: 10.1080/02724980543000123.
Decety, Jean; Grèzes, Julie (2006): The power of simulation: imagining one’s own and other’s behavior. In Brain Res. 1079 (1), pp. 4–14. DOI: 10.1016/j.brainres.2005.12.115.
Decety, Jean; Sommerville, Jessica A. (2003): Shared representations between self and other: a social cognitive neuroscience view. In Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (12), pp. 527–533. DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2003.10.004.
Demetriou, A. (2000): Organisation and development of self-understanding and self-regulation. In M. Zeidner (Ed.): Handbook of Self-Regulation. San Diego: CA:Academic, pp. 209–251.
Derakshan, Eysenck (2010): Emotional states, attention, and working memory. A special issue of cognition & emotion. Hove: Psychology Press (Cognition & emotion. Special Issue).
Doyen, Stéphane; Klein, Olivier; Pichon, Cora-Lise; Cleeremans, Axel; Lauwereyns, Jan (2012): Behavioral Priming: It’s All in the Mind, but Whose Mind? In PLoS ONE 7 (1), pp. e29081. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029081.
Duncan, John; McLeod, Peter.; Phillips, Louise (2005): Measuring the mind. Speed, control, and age / edited by John Duncan, Louise Phillips, Peter McLeod. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Eisenberg, N.; Fabes, R. A.; Guthrie, I. K.; Reiser, M. (2000): Dispositional emotionality and regulation: their role in predicting quality of social functioning. In Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 78 (1), pp. 136–157.
Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D. (2010): Emotion-related self-regulation and its relation to children’s maladjustment. In Annual review of clinical psychology 6, pp. 495–525. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.121208.131208.
Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Fabes, Richard A.; Smith, Cynthia L.; Reiser, Mark; Shepard, Stephanie A. et al. (2003): The relations of effortful control and ego control to children’s resiliency and social functioning. In Dev Psychol 39 (4), pp. 761–776.
Eisenberg N.; Damon w.; Lerner. (Eds.) (2006): Handbook of Child Psychology. New York: Wiley.
Elliott, R. (2003): Executive functions and their disorders. In British Medical Bulletin 65 (1), pp. 49–59. DOI: 10.1093/bmb/65.1.49.
Etkin, Amit; Egner, Tobias; Peraza, Daniel M.; Kandel, Eric R.; Hirsch, Joy (2006): Resolving Emotional Conflict: A Role for the Rostral Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Modulating Activity in the Amygdala. In Neuron 51 (6), pp. 871–882. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2006.07.029.
Euston, David R.; Gruber, Aaron J.; McNaughton, Bruce L. (2012): The role of medial prefrontal cortex in memory and decision making. In Neuron 76 (6), pp. 1057–1070. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2012.12.002.
Evans, Jonathan; Frankish, Keith (2009): In two minds. Dual processes and beyond. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.
Evans, Jonathan. (2006): The heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning: Extension and evaluation. In Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 13 (3), pp. 378–395. DOI: 10.3758/BF03193858.
Simon P Walker Thinking straight or true?
33
Evans, J. S. B. T.; Stanovich, K. E. (2013): Dual-Process Theories of Higher Cognition: Advancing the Debate. In Perspectives on Psychological Science 8 (3), pp. 223–241. DOI: 10.1177/1745691612460685.
Evans, Jonathan St. B. T. (2010): Thinking twice. Two minds in one brain / Jonathan St B T Evans. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fernandez-Duque, Diego; Baird, Jodie A.; Posner, Michael I. (2000): Executive Attention and Metacognitive Regulation. In Consciousness and Cognition 9 (2), pp. 288–307. DOI: 10.1006/ccog.2000.0447.
Fisk, Arthur D.; Schneider, Walter (1984): Memory as a function of attention, level of processing, and automatization. In Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 10 (2), pp. 181–197. DOI: 10.1037/0278-7393.10.2.181.
Gigerenzer, G. (2008): Why Heuristics Work. In Perspectives on Psychological Science 3 (1), pp. 20– 29. DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-6916.2008.00058.x.
Gigerenzer, Gerd; Hertwig, Ralph; Pachur, Thorsten (2011): Heuristics: Oxford University Press.
Gigerenzer, Gerd.; Todd, Peter M. (1999): Simple heuristics that make us smart. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press (Evolution and cognition).
Gilbert, Sam J.; Frith, Christopher D.; Burgess, Paul W. (2005): Involvement of rostral prefrontal cortex in selection between stimulus-oriented and stimulus-independent thought. In European Journal of Neuroscience 21 (5), pp. 1423–1431. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.03981.x.
Grove, David J.; Panzer, B. I. (1989): Resolving traumatic memories. Metaphors and symbols in psychotherapy. New York: Irvington Publishers.
Halberstadt, Amy G.; Denham, Susanne A.; Dunsmore, Julie C. (2001): Affective Social Competence. In Social Development 10 (1), pp. 79–119. DOI: 10.1111/1467-9507.00150.
Halford, Graeme S.; Cowan, Nelson; Andrews, Glenda (2007): Separating cognitive capacity from knowledge: a new hypothesis. In Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (6), pp. 236–242. DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2007.04.001.
Halford, Graeme S.; Wilson, William H.; Phillips, Steven (2010): Relational knowledge: the foundation of higher cognition. In Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (11), pp. 497–505. DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2010.08.005.
Halloran, Roberta Kathryn (2011): Self-regulation, executive function, working memory, and academic achievement of female high school students. In ETD Collection for Fordham University, pp. 1–139. Available online at http://fordham.bepress.com/dissertations/AAI3452791.
Hofer, Claire; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark (2010): The Role of Socialization, Effortful Control, and Ego Resiliency in French Adolescents’ Social Functioning. In J Res Adolesc 20 (3), pp. 555–582. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00650.x.
Human Ecology Education (6/19/2015): The Tribe Effect. UK. Available online at http://steeringparents.org/education/press-2/.
Human Ecology Eduction (2015): AS Tracking Technical data. Customer File.
Kahneman, D.; Tversky, A. (1973): On the psychology of prediction. In Psychological Review 80 (4), pp. 237–251.
Kahneman, Daniel (2003): A perspective on judgment and choice: Mapping bounded rationality. In American Psychologist 58 (9), pp. 697–720. DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.58.9.697.
Kahneman, Daniel (2011): Thinking, fast and slow. 1st ed. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Kahneman, Daniel; Slovic, Paul; Tversky, Amos (1982): Judgment under uncertainty. Heuristics and biases. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.
King, Kevin M.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Monahan, Kathryn C. (2013): Individual differences in the development of self-regulation during pre-adolescence: connections to context and adjustment. In Journal of abnormal child psychology 41 (1), pp. 57–69. DOI: 10.1007/s10802-012-9665-0.
Kopp, Richard R.; Craw, Michael Jay (1998): Metaphoric language, metaphoric cognition, and cognitive therapy. In Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training 35 (3), pp. 306–311. DOI: 10.1037/h0087795.

Lakoff, George (1987): Women, fire, and dangerous things. What categories reveal about the mind / George Lakoff. Chicago, London: University of Chicago Press.
Lakoff, George; Turner, Mark (1989): More than cool reason. A field guide to poetic metaphor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lavin, Claudio; Melis, Camilo; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Gelormini, Carlos; Huepe, David; Ibañez, Agustin (2013): The anterior cingulate cortex: an integrative hub for human socially-driven interactions. In Front. Neurosci. 7. DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2013.00064.
Lawley, James; Tompkins, Penny (2000): Metaphors in mind. Transformation through symbolic modelling. London: Developing Company Press.
LeDoux, J. E. (2000): Emotion circuits in the brain. In Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 23, pp. 155–184. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.neuro.23.1.155.
Lieberman, Matthew D. (2007): The X- and C-Systems: The Neural Basis of Automatic and Controlled Social Cognition. In Eddie Harmon-Jones, Piotr Winkielman (Eds.): Social neuroscience. Integrating biological and psychological explanations of social behavior. New York: Guilford Press, pp. 290–315.
Mayr, Ulrich; Keele, Steven W. (2001): Changing internal constraints on action: The role of backward inhibition. In Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Vol 134(3), Aug 2005, 343-367. 129 (1), pp. 4–26.
Miyake, A.; Friedman, N. P.; Emerson, M. J.; Witzki, A. H.; Howerter, A.; Wager, T. D. (2000): The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex \”Frontal Lobe\” tasks: a latent variable analysis. In Cogn Psychol 41 (1), pp. 49–100. DOI: 10.1006/cogp.1999.0734.
Monsell, Stephen (2003): Task switching. In Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (3), pp. 134–140. DOI: 10.1016/S1364-6613(03)00028-7.
Neys, W. de (2010): Heuristic Bias, Conflict, and Rationality in Decision-Making. In Britta Glatzeder, Vinod Goel, Müller, Albrecht A C von (Eds.): Towards a theory of thinking. Building blocks for conceptual framework. Heidelberg, New York: Springer (On thinking), pp. 23–33.
Neys, W. de; Glumicic, Tamara (2008): Conflict monitoring in dual process theories of thinking. In Cognition 106 (3), pp. 1248–1299. DOI: 10.1016/j.cognition.2007.06.002.
Panksepp, Jaak (2003): At the interface of the affective, behavioral, and cognitive neurosciences: Decoding the emotional feelings of the brain. In Brain and Cognition 52 (1), pp. 4–14. DOI: 10.1016/S0278-2626(03)00003-4.
Panksepp, Jaak, & Panksepp, Jules (2000): The Seven Sins of Evolutionary Psychology. In Evolution and Cognition 6 (2), pp. 108–131.
Paul W. Burgess, Jon S. Simons, Iroise (2005): The gateway hypothesis of The gateway hypothesis of rostral prefrontal cortex (area 10) function. Measuring the mind: Speed, control, and age / edited by John Duncan, Louise Phillips, Peter McLeod. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Polanyi, Michael (1958): Personal knowledge. Towards a post-critical philosophy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Polanyi, Michael (1966): The tacit dimension. 1st ed. Garden City N.Y: Doubleday (Terry lectures, 1962).
Preston, Alison R.; Eichenbaum, Howard (2013): Interplay of Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex in Memory. In Current Biology 23 (17), pp. R764. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2013.05.041.
Pronin, Emily (2009): The Introspection Illusion. In, vol. 41: Elsevier (Advances in Experimental Social Psychology), pp. 1–67.
Rawson, Katherine A.; Middleton, Erica L. (2009): Memory-based processing as a mechanism of automaticity in text comprehension. In Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 35 (2), pp. 353–370. DOI: 10.1037/a0014733.
Restivo, L.; Vetere, G.; Bontempi, B.; Ammassari-Teule, M. (2009): The Formation of Recent and Remote Memory Is Associated with Time-Dependent Formation of Dendritic Spines in the Hippocampus and Anterior Cingulate Cortex. In Journal of Neuroscience 29 (25), pp. 8206–8214. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0966-09.2009.
Rothbart, M. K.; Ahadi, S. A.; Evans, D. E. (2000a): Temperament and personality: origins and outcomes. In J Pers Soc Psychol 78 (1), pp. 122–135.
Rothbart, M. K.; Ahadi, S. A.; Evans, D. E. (2000b): Temperament and personality: origins and outcomes. In J Pers Soc Psychol 78 (1), pp. 122–135.
Rothbart, Mary K.; Bates, John E. (2007): Temperament. In William Damon, Richard M. Lerner (Eds.): Handbook of Child Psychology. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Sallquist, Julie Vaughan; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Reiser, Mark; Hofer, Claire; Zhou, Qing et al. (2009): Positive and negative emotionality: trajectories across six years and relations with social competence. In Emotion 9 (1), pp. 15–28. DOI: 10.1037/a0013970.
Schacter, Daniel L. (2012): Adaptive constructive processes and the future of memory. In Am Psychol 67 (8), pp. 603–613. DOI: 10.1037/a0029869.
Schacter, Daniel L., Addis, Donna Rose and Buckner, Randy L. (2007): Remembering The Past To Imagine The Future: The Prospective Brain. In Nature reviews Neuroscience 8 (9), pp. 657–661.
Schneider, W. (2003): Controlled & automatic processing: behavior, theory, and biological mechanisms. In Cognitive Science 27 (3), pp. 525–559. DOI: 10.1016/S0364-0213(03)00011-9.
Schneider, W.; Shiffrin, R. M. (1977): Controlled and automatic human information processing. I. Detection, search, and attention. In Psychological Review 84 (1), pp. 1–66.
Siegelman, Ellen. (1990): Metaphor and meaning in psychotherapy. New York: Guilford Press.
Simonds, Jennifer; Kieras, Jessica E.; Rueda, M. Rosario; Rothbart, Mary K. (2007): Effortful control, executive attention, and emotional regulation in 7–10-year-old children. In Cognitive Development 22 (4), pp. 474–488. DOI: 10.1016/j.cogdev.2007.08.009.
Sloman, Steven A. (1996): The empirical case for two systems of reasoning. In Psychological Bulletin 119 (1), pp. 3–22. DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.119.1.3.
St Clair-Thompson, Helen L; Gathercole, Susan E. (2006): Executive functions and achievements in school: Shifting, updating, inhibition, and working memory. In Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 59 (4), pp. 745– 759. DOI: 10.1080/17470210500162854.
Stanovich, Keith E. (2011): Rationality and the reflective mind. New York: Oxford University Press.
Stanovich, Keith E.; West, Richard F. (2008): On the relative independence of thinking biases and cognitive ability. In Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 94 (4), pp. 672–695.
Stanovich, Keith E.; West, Richard F. (2014): What Intelligence Tests Miss. In The Psychologist 27 (2), pp. 80–83.
Stanovich, Keith E.; West, Richard F.; Toplak, Maggie E. (2011): The complexity of developmental predictions from dual process models. In Developmental Review 31 (2-3), pp. 103–118. DOI: 10.1016/j.dr.2011.07.003.
Stein, Lynn Andrea (1994): Imagination and Situated Cognition. In Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 6 (4), pp. 393–407.
Tangney, June P.; Baumeister, Roy F.; Boone, Angie Luzio (2004): High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. In Journal of Personality 72 (2), pp. 271–324.
Thompson, Valerie; Morsanyi, Kinga (2012): Analytic thinking: do you feel like it? In Mind Soc 11 (1), pp. 93–105. DOI: 10.1007/s11299-012-0100-6.
Thompson, Valerie A.; Prowse Turner, Jamie A.; Pennycook, Gordon (2011): Intuition, reason, and metacognition. In Cognitive Psychology 63 (3), pp. 107–140. DOI: 10.1016/j.cogpsych.2011.06.001.
Thompson, Valerie A.; Turner, Jamie A. Prowse; Pennycook, Gordon; Ball, Linden J.; Brack, Hannah; Ophir, Yael; Ackerman, Rakefet (2013): The role of answer fluency and perceptual fluency as metacognitive cues for initiating analytic thinking. In Cognition 128 (2), pp. 237–251. DOI: 10.1016/j.cognition.2012.09.012.
Trentacosta,C.J., & Shaw, D.S. (2009): Emotional self-regulation, peer rejection, and anti-social behaviour: Developmetal associations from early childhood to early adolescence. In Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 30 (3), pp. 356–365.
Vohs, Kathleen D.; Baumeister, Roy F.; Schmeichel, Brandon J.; Twenge, Jean M.; Nelson, Noelle M.; Tice, Dianne M. (2008): Making choices impairs subsequent self-control: a limited-resource account of decision making, self-regulation, and active initiative. In J Pers Soc Psychol 94 (5), pp. 883–898. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.94.5.883.
Walker, J. (2015a): A psychological and developmental understanding of affective-social selfregulation. DProf. University of Winchester, UK.
Walker, J. (2015b): A psychological understanding of over-self-regulation. DProf. University of Winchester, UK.
Walker, J. (2015c): AS Tracking: A psychological and developmental understanding of embracing change. DProf. University of Winchester, UK.
Walker, J. (2015d): AS Tracking: A psychological and developmental understanding of self-disclosure. DProf. University of Winchester, UK.
Walker, J. (2015e): AS Tracking: A psychological and developmental understanding of trust of others. DProf. University of Winchester, UK.
Walker, J. (2015f): AS Tracking: A psychological and developmental understanding of trust of self. DProf. University of Winchester, UK.
Walker, J. (2015g): How the AS Tracking assessment measures self-regulation. DProf. University of Winchester, UK.
Walker, J.; Walker, Simon P. (2013): Footprints Cognitive Affective State Tracking. Version 1.3. UK: Human Ecology Education. Available online at www.footprintsschoolsprogramme.co.uk.
Walker, Simon P. (1996): Relational Truth. Personhood, texts and hermeneutics. UK.
Walker, Simon P. (1997): Challenging Deconstruction: A Look at Persons, Texts and Hermeneutics,. In Churchman 111 (3). Available online at http://simonpwalker.com/#/researchpublications/4587873262.
Walker, Simon P. (1998): Grounding Biblical Metaphor in Reality: The philosophical basis of realist metaphorical language. In Churchman 112 (3). Available online at http://www.churchsociety.org/churchman/articles.asp?vol=112.
Walker, Simon P. (2002): Resistant to Change. The stability of CAS state in adults. Available online at http://simonpwalker.com/#/research-publications/4587873262.
Walker, Simon P. (2007, 2009): A Brief Introduction to the Theory of Human Ecology. UK: Human Ecology Partners.
Walker, Simon P. (2014a): Activated or Deactivated? The Relationship between Grade Predictions and the Optimal State of Self- Other Trust in Year 10 Students in their Lessons. Centre for Human Ecology Theory. UK. Available online at http://simonpwalker.com/#/researchpublications/4587873262.
Walker, Simon P. (2014b): Becoming Undefended. Developing leaders who are freed from fear. DProf. University of Winchester, UK.
Walker, Simon P. (2014c): Confirmation of Seven Factors which Contribute to Cognitive-Affective State (CAS). Centre for Human Ecology Theory. UK. Available online at http://simonpwalker.com/#/research-publications/4587873262.
Walker, Simon P. (2014 h.): Educating the self-regulation of bias. University of Bristol. UK. Available online at http://simonpwalker.com/#/research-publications/4587873262.
Walker, Simon P. (2014 g.): Navigating the world via heuristic bias. Cognitive-affective heuristic biasing contributes to successful navigation of epistemically varied tasks in secondary school. Human Ecology Education, England. Available online at http://simonpwalker.com/#/researchpublications/4587873262.
Walker, Simon P. (2014d): What affect does displaying results of a competitive event have on pupil AS self-regulation? Thomas’s Research Programme. UK. Available online at http://simonpwalker.com.
Wang, C. (2005): Responses of Human Anterior Cingulate Cortex Microdomains to Error Detection, Conflict Monitoring, Stimulus-Response Mapping, Familiarity, and Orienting. In Journal of Neuroscience 25 (3), pp. 604–613. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4151-04.2005.
White, Peter A. (1988): Knowing more about what we can tell: ‘Introspective access’ and causal report accuracy 10 years later. In British Journal of Psychology 79 (1), pp. 13–45. DOI: 10.1111/j.2044-8295.1988.tb02271.x.